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Inside Darwinex – Performance calculation, explained

24 October 2013

Understanding your Performance

Upon joining, many new movement members reach out stating: “hey guys, my performance statistics are different from Service Alfa (insert here your favourite alternative site to Darwinex) – they’re wrong!”

Whilst occasionally stuff DOES go wrong, more often than not differences owe to the fact that returns at Darwinex are calculated differently from most existing service providers.

Other services calculate performance on changes to account balance, which accounts for realised P&L (closed trades), but ignores unrealised P&L until open trades are closed.

Darwinex performance is measured on changes to liquidation value, which accounts for realised P&L (closed trades) as well as unrealised P&L (i.e. open trades).

This is the most common reason why returns “differ”. The rest of this post explains why we do things this way, and what implications this has.

Other services performance calculation – changes in account balance

Most services track changes to balance, i.e. accounting for

  • Starting account balance
  • Plus minus realised P&L
  • Plus minus cash flows
    • Cash paid in / deducted by your broker (swaps, commissions, etc.)
    • Monies deposited in / withdrawn by yourself

Performance over a given reference period is then driven by the % change in the resulting account balance.

Your Darwinex Performance – changes in mark to market

At Darwinex, all strategies’ Trading Journal reflect daily liquidation values, considering:

  • Starting account balance
  • Plus minus realised P&L: i.e. monies made or lost on closed positions
  • Plus minus cash flows as per above
  • Unrealised P&L: i.e. what-if P&L when closing ALL open positions at the end of every day

I.e. at the end of every day, regardless of whether trades are open or closed, we compute the hypothetical P&L for ALL open positions assuming that they were closed at the then going market price. The resulting account “balance” is called liquidation value for that particular day.

Your performance is calculated on changes to this liquidation value (purists would call this Mark-to-Market value) of equity. Which means, on any day where open positions are held overnight, the inputs into your performance calculation are different from the inputs at Service Alfa. Unsurprisingly, the output is also different!

Unrealised P&L – why do we care about it?

Darwinia rates strategies for DARWIN investor appeal (hence Darwinia): our standpoint is that of an investor replicating, with his own monies, all trading decisions in a strategy.

This makes us care about unrealised P&L as much as we care about account balance: let’s work through an example to illustrate why.

Market movements matter

Trader Ace with USD 10,000 balance opens a 5 lot long EUR/USD trade. For the next 3 days, this will be his only open trade.

This is what happens to the EUR/USD over the timeframe.

  • Trade open at 1.30135 on day 0
  • End of Day 0: EUR/USD is at 1.30115. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • End of Day 1: EUR/USD is at 1.29250. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • End of Day 2: EUR/USD is at 1.28815. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • Day 3: trade is closed at 1.30250

Investor A replicates Ace’s trades with his own monies 1:1, i.e. using the same leverage as Ace. A uses Darwinex and service Alfa to monitor his investment.

This is the performance calculation investor A gets at Darwinex and Service Alfa [1]:

Snapshot EUR/USD TradeSlide Service Alfa
Liq. value  Daily Perf. Balance Daily Perf.
Trade open 1.30135 10,000.00$ N/A 10,000.00$ N/A
End of day 0 1.30115 9,900.00$ -1% 10,000.00$ Flat
End of day 1 1.29250 5,575.00$ -43,69% 10,000.00$ Flat
End of day 2 1.28815 3,400.00$ -39.01% 10,000.00$ Flat
Trade close 1.30250 10,575.00$ 211.03%(5.75% compounded over 3 days) 10,575.00$ 5.75%

Let’s get this straight: both methodologies are “correct”.

BUT: Darwinex performance contains more information than Service Alfa’s calculation – the unrealised P&L that drives changes to liquidation value.

This has implications that matter.

Implication 1: Performance “masquerades”

Investors are always keen for brilliant performance. As always in life, there’s two ways about it: the proper way, and a short cut.

The safe one is to develop trading skills, manage risk with discipline, and work 2,000 hours a year to develop and maintain a unique strategy that delivers risk-adjusted returns. But hey, we know that’s hard work …

So why not take the short cut? If performance equals realised P&L and unrealised P&L doesn’t matter, why not “short cut” mind-boggling balance growth as follows?

  • Trade winning? Close it and credit realized P&L
  • Trade losing? Keep “corpses” in the “unrealised P&L” closet
  • Repeat

Of course, too many losing trades will trigger a margin-call (the worse the strategy, the sooner). Meanwhile, high return, low risk growth in balance will have lured plenty of profitable investors using service Alfa…

Implication 2: Risk management

A more fundamental implication is risk measurement. Measuring risk on volatility in balance leads A to these conclusions:

  • Volatility: low – A’s money “only” moves from 100% to 105.75%
  • Drawdown: A “experienced” no drawdown in this trade
  • Rally: A “experienced” a rally of 5.75% of his money on this trade

I.e. A will completely ignore that his monies moved around 40% over the 2 days of the trade, and that at the end of day 2 he was 6,600 USD worse-off.

Of course, Ace could argue that the trade worked out just grand, with a profit of 5.75%. But what if A was leaving for a Himalaya trekking trip and asked Ace to close any open positions at the close of day 2? Boy that would have been ugly!

Summary: why?

Calculating net liquidation values requires us to source & maintain the mark-to-market price database for all the assets you ever traded, and that’s not a small & cheap database to populate, host and maintain.

Further, the way performance is calculated on the BASIC and the DARWINIA statistics is slightly different, as Darwinia is a lot more analytically involved. You will occasionally see a few decimal differences between one and the other, as they are updated with different precision and time frames… but they’re not wrong.

But then again, that’s the only way to create D-Leverage, no DarwinIA, no DARWINs, etc. If it requires us doing things differently from service Alfa – so be it!

 


[1] For simplicity, we’ve ignored swaps & any other overnight charges.

Last News
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Start of Daylight Saving Time 2019

4 March 2019

Please note our amended trading hours for the three-week-long period between the change in the US from EST to EDT on 10th March 2019 and the subsequent change in the UK from GMT to BST on 31st March 2019.

Please note our amended trading hours for the three week period between the change in the US from EST to EDT on 10th March 2019 and the subsequent change in the UK from GMT to BST on 31st March 2019.

 

Instrument Trading Hours in GMT
FX 21:05 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 21:01 daily) 
DARWINS 21:05 Sun – 21:00 Fri (except 21:00 – 21:01 daily)
COMMODITIES  
Gold 22:01 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 20:59 – 22:01 daily)
Silver 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
Platinum 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
Palladium 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
US Crude 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
Natural Gas 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
INDICES  
Australia 200 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
Europe 50 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
France 40 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
Germany 30 07:00 – 21:00 (Mon – Fri)
Spain 35 07:00 – 19:00 (Mon – Fri)
Japan 225 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
UK 100 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
US SPX 500 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
US Tech 100 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
Wall Street 30 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
US STOCKS 13:31 -19:59 (Mon – Fri)
CRYPTOCURRENCIES 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)

 

As always, please do not hesitate to get in touch at info@darwinex.com should you need assistance.

Trading Hours for US Presidents’ Day on 18th February 2019

12 February 2019

Please note that the following trading hours will apply on Monday 18th February 2019.

Please note that the following trading hours will apply on Monday 18th February 2019. All times are in GMT+0 (London) time.

Commodities   Monday 18th Febuary 2019
Gold 23:01 Sun – 18:00 Mon
Silver 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
Platinum 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
Palladium 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
US Crude 23:00 Sun – 17:45 Mon
US Natural Gas 23:00 Sun – 17:45 Mon
Indices
J225 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
SPX500 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
NDX 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
WS30 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
US Stocks
All US stocks CLOSED

 


The rest of the assets will trade according to their usual trading time.

As always, at info@darwinex.com we’ll be happy to assist you!

Trading Hours On Australia Day on 28th January 2019

22 January 2019

Please note that the following trading hour will apply to the AUS200 asset on Monday 28th January 2019 due to Australia Day.

Please note that the following trading hours will apply on Monday 28th January 2019. Times in GMT+0 (London) time.


 

Indices  Monday 28th January 2019
AUS200 06:10 – 22:00

 


The rest of the assets will trade according to their usual trading time.

As always, at info@darwinex.com we’ll be happy to assist you!

Trading Hours for the US Martin Luther King Day on 21st January 2019

15 January 2019

Please note that the following trading hours will apply on Monday 21st January 2019. All times are in GMT+0 (London) time. Commodities   Monday 21st January 2019 Gold 23:01 Sun – 18:00 Mon Silver 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon Platinum 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon Palladium 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon US Crude 23:00 Sun – 17:45 […]

Please note that the following trading hours will apply on Monday 21st January 2019. All times are in GMT+0 (London) time.

Commodities   Monday 21st January 2019
Gold 23:01 Sun – 18:00 Mon
Silver 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
Platinum 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
Palladium 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
US Crude 23:00 Sun – 17:45 Mon
US Natural Gas 23:00 Sun – 17:45 Mon
Indices
J225 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
SPX500 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
NDX 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon
WS30 23:00 Sun – 18:00 Mon

 


The rest of the assets will trade according to their usual trading time.

As always, at info@darwinex.com we’ll be happy to assist you!

Navidad

Darwinex Trading Hours for the 2018 Christmas & New Year Holiday Period

18 December 2018

Christmas is around the corner! Please find below the Darwinex Trading Schedule for the 2018 Christmas and New Year Holiday Period (all times are displayed in UK time and changes to regular trading hours are highlighted in red). Also note that during the Cristmas and New Year holiday period spreads may widen and swaps may […]

Christmas is around the corner!

Please find below the Darwinex Trading Schedule for the 2018 Christmas and New Year Holiday Period (all times are displayed in UK time and changes to regular trading hours are highlighted in red).

Also note that during the Cristmas and New Year holiday period spreads may widen and swaps may be affected by the ‘turn’ effect. The ‘turn’ effect is a phenomenon that exists in financial markets which is caused by supply and demand for funding over key dates such as year or quarter-end. This can create anomalies in the forward curves for certain currencies, and we are already beginning to see this priced into the year-end swap points that we receive from our liquidity providers.

Christmas 2018

DARWINs Monday 24th December Tuesday 25th December Wednesday 26th December
All DARWINs 22:05 Sun – 18:45 Mon Closed 22:05 Tue – 21:59 Wed
FX Monday 24th December Tuesday 25th December Wednesday 26th December
All FX Instruments 22:05 Sun – 18:45 Mon Closed 22:01:01 Tue – 21:59:50 Wed
Commodities Monday 24th December Tuesday 25th December Wednesday 26th December
Gold 23:01 Sun – 18:45 Mon Closed 23:01 Tue – 21:59 Wed
Silver 23:00 Sun – 18:45 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 21:50:50 Wed
Platinum 23:00 Sun – 18:45 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
Palladium 23:00 Sun – 18:45 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
US Crude 23:00 Sun – 18:30 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
US Natural Gas 23:00 Sun – 18:30 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
Indices Monday 24th December Tuesday 25th December Wednesday 26th December
AUS200 23:00 Sun – 03:30 Mon Closed Closed
STOXX50E Closed Closed Closed
FCHI40 23:00 Sun – 13:00 Mon Closed Closed
GDAXI Closed Closed Closed
J225 23:00 Sun – 18:15 Mon Closed Closed
SPA35 07:00 – 13:00 Closed Closed
UK100 23:00 Sun – 12:50 Mon Closed Closed
SPX500 23:00 Sun – 18:15 Mon Closed Closed
NDX 23:00 Sun – 18:15 Mon Closed Closed
WS30 23:00 Sun – 18:15 Mon Closed Closed
US Stocks Monday 24th December Tuesday 25th December Wednesday 26th December
All US stocks 14:31 – 17:59 Closed 14:31 – 20:59
Crypto Monday 24th December Tuesday 25th December Wednesday 26th December
All Crypto Instruments 22:05 Sun – 22:00 Mon 22:05 Mon – 22:00 Tue 22:05 Tue – 22:00 Wed


New Year 2019

DARWINs Monday 31st December Tuesday 1st January Wednesday 2nd January
All DARWINs 22:05 Sun – 21:59 Mon Closed 22:05 Tue – 21:59 Wed
FX Monday 31st December Tuesday 1st January Wednesday 2nd January
All FX Instruments 22:05 Sun – 21:59:50 Mon Closed 22:01:01 Tue – 21:59:50 Wed
Commodities Monday 31st December Tuesday 1st January Wednesday 2nd January
Gold 23:01 Sun – 21:59 Mon Closed 23:01 Tue – 21:59 Wed
Silver 23:00 Sun – 21:59:50 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 21:50:50 Wed
Platinum 23:00 Sun – 22:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
Palladium 23:00 Sun – 22:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
US Crude 23:00 Sun – 22:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
US Natural Gas 23:00 Sun – 22:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
Indices Monday 31st December Tuesday 1st January Wednesday 2nd January
AUS200 23:00 Sun – 03:30 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
STOXX50E Closed Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
FCHI40 23:00 Sun – 13:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
GDAXI Closed Closed 07:00 – 21:00
J225 23:00 Sun – 22:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
SPA35 07:00 – 13:00 Closed 07:00 – 19:00
UK100 23:00 Sun – 12:50 Mon Closed Closed
SPX500 23:00 Sun – 22:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
NDX 23:00 Sun – 22:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
WS30 23:00 Sun – 22:00 Mon Closed 23:00 Tue – 22:00 Wed
US Stocks Monday 31st December Tuesday 1st January Wednesday 2nd January
All US stocks 14:31 – 20:59 Closed 14:31 – 20:59
Crypto Monday 31st December Tuesday 1st January Wednesday 2nd January
All Crypto Instruments 22:05 Sun – 22:00 Mon 22:05 Mon – 22:00 Tue 22:05 Tue – 22:00 Wed

 


As always, if you have any queries, please feel free to contact us at info@darwinex.com.

The Darwinex Team wishes you a Merry Xmas and a Happy New Year!

apalancamiento esma

UK Parliament Vote on EU Withdrawal Bill (11 December 2018)

9 December 2018

We would like to remind you that the UK Parliament will vote on the EU Withdrawal Bill on 11th December 2018. There is a high degree of uncertainty as to the outcome of the vote and all GBP currency crosses are likely to experience significant volatility with increased risk of market gaps. It is important that you […]

We would like to remind you that the UK Parliament will vote on the EU Withdrawal Bill on 11th December 2018.

There is a high degree of uncertainty as to the outcome of the vote and all GBP currency crosses are likely to experience significant volatility with increased risk of market gaps.

It is important that you have sufficient margin coverage and are comfortable with the exposure on your account as our margin requirements may change going into the vote or depending on the outcome of the vote.

Please feel free to contact us at info@darwinex.com should you need assistance in this regard.

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 77 % of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.