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Inside Darwinex – Performance calculation, explained

24 October 2013

Understanding your Performance

Upon joining, many new movement members reach out stating: “hey guys, my performance statistics are different from Service Alfa (insert here your favourite alternative site to Darwinex) – they’re wrong!”

Whilst occasionally stuff DOES go wrong, more often than not differences owe to the fact that returns at Darwinex are calculated differently from most existing service providers.

Other services calculate performance on changes to account balance, which accounts for realised P&L (closed trades), but ignores unrealised P&L until open trades are closed.

Darwinex performance is measured on changes to liquidation value, which accounts for realised P&L (closed trades) as well as unrealised P&L (i.e. open trades).

This is the most common reason why returns “differ”. The rest of this post explains why we do things this way, and what implications this has.

Other services performance calculation – changes in account balance

Most services track changes to balance, i.e. accounting for

  • Starting account balance
  • Plus minus realised P&L
  • Plus minus cash flows
    • Cash paid in / deducted by your broker (swaps, commissions, etc.)
    • Monies deposited in / withdrawn by yourself

Performance over a given reference period is then driven by the % change in the resulting account balance.

Your Darwinex Performance – changes in mark to market

At Darwinex, all strategies’ Trading Journal reflect daily liquidation values, considering:

  • Starting account balance
  • Plus minus realised P&L: i.e. monies made or lost on closed positions
  • Plus minus cash flows as per above
  • Unrealised P&L: i.e. what-if P&L when closing ALL open positions at the end of every day

I.e. at the end of every day, regardless of whether trades are open or closed, we compute the hypothetical P&L for ALL open positions assuming that they were closed at the then going market price. The resulting account “balance” is called liquidation value for that particular day.

Your performance is calculated on changes to this liquidation value (purists would call this Mark-to-Market value) of equity. Which means, on any day where open positions are held overnight, the inputs into your performance calculation are different from the inputs at Service Alfa. Unsurprisingly, the output is also different!

Unrealised P&L – why do we care about it?

Darwinia rates strategies for DARWIN investor appeal (hence Darwinia): our standpoint is that of an investor replicating, with his own monies, all trading decisions in a strategy.

This makes us care about unrealised P&L as much as we care about account balance: let’s work through an example to illustrate why.

Market movements matter

Trader Ace with USD 10,000 balance opens a 5 lot long EUR/USD trade. For the next 3 days, this will be his only open trade.

This is what happens to the EUR/USD over the timeframe.

  • Trade open at 1.30135 on day 0
  • End of Day 0: EUR/USD is at 1.30115. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • End of Day 1: EUR/USD is at 1.29250. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • End of Day 2: EUR/USD is at 1.28815. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • Day 3: trade is closed at 1.30250

Investor A replicates Ace’s trades with his own monies 1:1, i.e. using the same leverage as Ace. A uses Darwinex and service Alfa to monitor his investment.

This is the performance calculation investor A gets at Darwinex and Service Alfa [1]:

Snapshot EUR/USD TradeSlide Service Alfa
Liq. value  Daily Perf. Balance Daily Perf.
Trade open 1.30135 10,000.00$ N/A 10,000.00$ N/A
End of day 0 1.30115 9,900.00$ -1% 10,000.00$ Flat
End of day 1 1.29250 5,575.00$ -43,69% 10,000.00$ Flat
End of day 2 1.28815 3,400.00$ -39.01% 10,000.00$ Flat
Trade close 1.30250 10,575.00$ 211.03%(5.75% compounded over 3 days) 10,575.00$ 5.75%

Let’s get this straight: both methodologies are “correct”.

BUT: Darwinex performance contains more information than Service Alfa’s calculation – the unrealised P&L that drives changes to liquidation value.

This has implications that matter.

Implication 1: Performance “masquerades”

Investors are always keen for brilliant performance. As always in life, there’s two ways about it: the proper way, and a short cut.

The safe one is to develop trading skills, manage risk with discipline, and work 2,000 hours a year to develop and maintain a unique strategy that delivers risk-adjusted returns. But hey, we know that’s hard work …

So why not take the short cut? If performance equals realised P&L and unrealised P&L doesn’t matter, why not “short cut” mind-boggling balance growth as follows?

  • Trade winning? Close it and credit realized P&L
  • Trade losing? Keep “corpses” in the “unrealised P&L” closet
  • Repeat

Of course, too many losing trades will trigger a margin-call (the worse the strategy, the sooner). Meanwhile, high return, low risk growth in balance will have lured plenty of profitable investors using service Alfa…

Implication 2: Risk management

A more fundamental implication is risk measurement. Measuring risk on volatility in balance leads A to these conclusions:

  • Volatility: low – A’s money “only” moves from 100% to 105.75%
  • Drawdown: A “experienced” no drawdown in this trade
  • Rally: A “experienced” a rally of 5.75% of his money on this trade

I.e. A will completely ignore that his monies moved around 40% over the 2 days of the trade, and that at the end of day 2 he was 6,600 USD worse-off.

Of course, Ace could argue that the trade worked out just grand, with a profit of 5.75%. But what if A was leaving for a Himalaya trekking trip and asked Ace to close any open positions at the close of day 2? Boy that would have been ugly!

Summary: why?

Calculating net liquidation values requires us to source & maintain the mark-to-market price database for all the assets you ever traded, and that’s not a small & cheap database to populate, host and maintain.

Further, the way performance is calculated on the BASIC and the DARWINIA statistics is slightly different, as Darwinia is a lot more analytically involved. You will occasionally see a few decimal differences between one and the other, as they are updated with different precision and time frames… but they’re not wrong.

But then again, that’s the only way to create D-Leverage, no DarwinIA, no DARWINs, etc. If it requires us doing things differently from service Alfa – so be it!

 


[1] For simplicity, we’ve ignored swaps & any other overnight charges.

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DarwinIA introduces four additonal excluding criteria

12 August 2020

Darwinex accompanies the new D-Score with modifications to the criteria for participating in DarwinIA. From the September 2020 edition, 3 additional excluding criteria will be added.

As announced in the article about the new D-Score, Darwinex accompanies the new D-Score with modifications to the criteria for participating in DarwinIA. From the September 2020 edition, the following 4 restrictions will be added:

Mc < 3. A DARWIN won’t be ranked on the DarwinIA leaderboard while it’s Market correlation score is lower than 3.
Rs < 3. A DARWIN won’t be ranked on the DarwinIA leaderboard while its Risk stability score is lower than 3.
Monthly return < 0%. A DARWIN won’t be ranked on the DarwinIA leaderboard while its monthly return is negative.

DarwinIA allocation > € 500,000. A DARWIN won’t be ranked on the DarwinIA leaderboard while its accumulated DarwinIA allocation is higher than € 500,000.

Visit Darwinex Docs – DarwinIA to check out all excluding factors.

Trading Schedule for the US Independence Day on 3rd July 2020

30 June 2020

Please note the amended Darwinex trading hours for the upcoming US Independence Day on 3 July 2020.

Please note the amended Darwinex trading hours for the upcoming US Independence Day on 3 July 2020. All times are in UK (BST) time.

FX Friday 3rd July
All FX Instruments 22:04:01 Thu – 21:55:00 Fri
DARWINs 22:05:00 Thu – 21:55:00 Fri
Commodities Friday 3rd July
Gold *23:01:00 Thu – 17:44 Fri 
Silver *23:00:01 Thu – 17:59:50 Fri 
US Crude *23:00:01 Thu – 17:44 Fri 
US Natural Gas *23:00:01 Thu – 17:44 Fri 
Indices Friday 3rd July
AUS200 23:00 Thu – 22:00 Fri
STOXX50E 23:00 Thu – 22:00 Fri
FCHI40 23:00 Thu – 22:00 Fri
GDAXI 07:00 – 21:00
J225 *23:00 Thu – 18:00 Fri 
SPA35 07:00 – 19:00
UK100 23:00 Thu – 22:00 Fri
SPX500 *23:00 Thu – 18:00 Fri
NDX *23:00 Thu – 18:00 Fri 
WS30 *23:00 Thu – 18:00 Fri
Stocks Friday 3rd July
All US stocks CLOSED
 
Crypto Friday 3rd July
All Crypto Instruments 22:05 Wed – 22:00 Thu

*Amended trading hours.

The DARWIN Exchange will remain open even if the underlying assets’ market is closed. Learn about standard procedure when you buy/sell a DARWIN whose underlying asset market is closed: What happens if you want to buy/sell a DARWIN which has underlying trades open with different opening/closing times?

As always, at info@darwinex.com we’ll be happy to assist you!

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Move of DarwinIA allocations to new risk DARWINs

26 June 2020

Next Monday  29 June 2020 13:00 we will move DarwinIA allocations from the DARWINs of VaR 10% to those of VaR 6.5%.

Next Monday  29 June 2020 13:00 we will move DarwinIA allocations from the DARWINs of VaR 10% to those of VaR 6.5%.

For this move, it’s necessary to take into account the PnL of the allocation. That is, if a DARWIN of VaR 10% had an allocation of 20,000 and PnL of 1,000, what it will have after the migration to VaR 6.5% will be

(20000 + 1000) * 10/6.5

If it were a loss instead of a gain, it would be subtracted.

On July 1st the new DarwinIA prizes will be allocated to the 6.5% VaR DARWINs.

Upcoming Holiday in Australia

4 June 2020

Please be aware that there is a public holiday in Australia on 8 June. Please kindly note that during this time spreads may be wider and liquidity may be thinner. Bank holidays may also give rise to changes to the applicable swap rates. Here are the amended Darwinex trading hours for this day. All times are […]

Please be aware that there is a public holiday in Australia on 8 June. Please kindly note that during this time spreads may be wider and liquidity may be thinner. Bank holidays may also give rise to changes to the applicable swap rates.

Here are the amended Darwinex trading hours for this day. All times are in UK (BST) time.

Indices  Monday 8th June 2020
AUS200 08:10 – 22:00

 

The rest of the assets will trade according to their usual trading time.

 

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Platform in Maintenance Mode on May 30-31

29 May 2020

For the rolling out of the changes announced earlier this week, the entire Darwinex platform will be switched to maintenance mode including darwinex.com, mobile apps, FTP service and DARWIN API.

For the rolling out of the changes announced earlier this week, the entire Darwinex platform will be switched to maintenance mode including darwinex.com, mobile apps, FTP service and DARWIN API.

If everything goes as planned, the new DARWINs will be born by the end of the weekend!

Upcoming Holiday In New Zealand Resulting In The Possibility Of Wider Spread

27 May 2020

Please be aware that there is a public holiday in New Zealand on Monday, June 1st during which spreads may be wider and liquidity may be thinner. For any questions, reach out to info@darwinex.com.

Please be aware that there is a public holiday in New Zealand on Monday, June 1st during which spreads may be wider and liquidity may be thinner. For any questions, reach out to info@darwinex.com.

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. -- % of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.