BOARD

Inside Darwinex – Performance calculation, explained

24 October 2013

Understanding your Performance

Upon joining, many new movement members reach out stating: “hey guys, my performance statistics are different from Service Alfa (insert here your favourite alternative site to Darwinex) – they’re wrong!”

Whilst occasionally stuff DOES go wrong, more often than not differences owe to the fact that returns at Darwinex are calculated differently from most existing service providers.

Other services calculate performance on changes to account balance, which accounts for realised P&L (closed trades), but ignores unrealised P&L until open trades are closed.

Darwinex performance is measured on changes to liquidation value, which accounts for realised P&L (closed trades) as well as unrealised P&L (i.e. open trades).

This is the most common reason why returns “differ”. The rest of this post explains why we do things this way, and what implications this has.

Other services performance calculation – changes in account balance

Most services track changes to balance, i.e. accounting for

  • Starting account balance
  • Plus minus realised P&L
  • Plus minus cash flows
    • Cash paid in / deducted by your broker (swaps, commissions, etc.)
    • Monies deposited in / withdrawn by yourself

Performance over a given reference period is then driven by the % change in the resulting account balance.

Your Darwinex Performance – changes in mark to market

At Darwinex, all strategies’ Trading Journal reflect daily liquidation values, considering:

  • Starting account balance
  • Plus minus realised P&L: i.e. monies made or lost on closed positions
  • Plus minus cash flows as per above
  • Unrealised P&L: i.e. what-if P&L when closing ALL open positions at the end of every day

I.e. at the end of every day, regardless of whether trades are open or closed, we compute the hypothetical P&L for ALL open positions assuming that they were closed at the then going market price. The resulting account “balance” is called liquidation value for that particular day.

Your performance is calculated on changes to this liquidation value (purists would call this Mark-to-Market value) of equity. Which means, on any day where open positions are held overnight, the inputs into your performance calculation are different from the inputs at Service Alfa. Unsurprisingly, the output is also different!

Unrealised P&L – why do we care about it?

Darwinia rates strategies for DARWIN investor appeal (hence Darwinia): our standpoint is that of an investor replicating, with his own monies, all trading decisions in a strategy.

This makes us care about unrealised P&L as much as we care about account balance: let’s work through an example to illustrate why.

Market movements matter

Trader Ace with USD 10,000 balance opens a 5 lot long EUR/USD trade. For the next 3 days, this will be his only open trade.

This is what happens to the EUR/USD over the timeframe.

  • Trade open at 1.30135 on day 0
  • End of Day 0: EUR/USD is at 1.30115. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • End of Day 1: EUR/USD is at 1.29250. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • End of Day 2: EUR/USD is at 1.28815. Ace keeps the trade overnight
  • Day 3: trade is closed at 1.30250

Investor A replicates Ace’s trades with his own monies 1:1, i.e. using the same leverage as Ace. A uses Darwinex and service Alfa to monitor his investment.

This is the performance calculation investor A gets at Darwinex and Service Alfa [1]:

Snapshot EUR/USD TradeSlide Service Alfa
Liq. value  Daily Perf. Balance Daily Perf.
Trade open 1.30135 10,000.00$ N/A 10,000.00$ N/A
End of day 0 1.30115 9,900.00$ -1% 10,000.00$ Flat
End of day 1 1.29250 5,575.00$ -43,69% 10,000.00$ Flat
End of day 2 1.28815 3,400.00$ -39.01% 10,000.00$ Flat
Trade close 1.30250 10,575.00$ 211.03%(5.75% compounded over 3 days) 10,575.00$ 5.75%

Let’s get this straight: both methodologies are “correct”.

BUT: Darwinex performance contains more information than Service Alfa’s calculation – the unrealised P&L that drives changes to liquidation value.

This has implications that matter.

Implication 1: Performance “masquerades”

Investors are always keen for brilliant performance. As always in life, there’s two ways about it: the proper way, and a short cut.

The safe one is to develop trading skills, manage risk with discipline, and work 2,000 hours a year to develop and maintain a unique strategy that delivers risk-adjusted returns. But hey, we know that’s hard work …

So why not take the short cut? If performance equals realised P&L and unrealised P&L doesn’t matter, why not “short cut” mind-boggling balance growth as follows?

  • Trade winning? Close it and credit realized P&L
  • Trade losing? Keep “corpses” in the “unrealised P&L” closet
  • Repeat

Of course, too many losing trades will trigger a margin-call (the worse the strategy, the sooner). Meanwhile, high return, low risk growth in balance will have lured plenty of profitable investors using service Alfa…

Implication 2: Risk management

A more fundamental implication is risk measurement. Measuring risk on volatility in balance leads A to these conclusions:

  • Volatility: low – A’s money “only” moves from 100% to 105.75%
  • Drawdown: A “experienced” no drawdown in this trade
  • Rally: A “experienced” a rally of 5.75% of his money on this trade

I.e. A will completely ignore that his monies moved around 40% over the 2 days of the trade, and that at the end of day 2 he was 6,600 USD worse-off.

Of course, Ace could argue that the trade worked out just grand, with a profit of 5.75%. But what if A was leaving for a Himalaya trekking trip and asked Ace to close any open positions at the close of day 2? Boy that would have been ugly!

Summary: why?

Calculating net liquidation values requires us to source & maintain the mark-to-market price database for all the assets you ever traded, and that’s not a small & cheap database to populate, host and maintain.

Further, the way performance is calculated on the BASIC and the DARWINIA statistics is slightly different, as Darwinia is a lot more analytically involved. You will occasionally see a few decimal differences between one and the other, as they are updated with different precision and time frames… but they’re not wrong.

But then again, that’s the only way to create D-Leverage, no DarwinIA, no DARWINs, etc. If it requires us doing things differently from service Alfa – so be it!

 


[1] For simplicity, we’ve ignored swaps & any other overnight charges.

Last News
apalancamiento esma

NextEra Energy Stock Split 4:1

19 October 2020

The NextEra Energy stock split is approaching. At Darwinex we will apply the stock split on October 27th.

The NextEra Energy stock split is approaching. $NEE shares will be split 4-for-1. The number of shares will be multiplied by 4 and share prices divided by this same value.

At Darwinex we will apply the stock split on Tuesday October 27th at market open.

In live accounts we will adjust open position to the split without the need to close and reopen trades. Pending orders will be cancelled. In MT5, the hedged positions will be closed and the split will be applied to the resulting net position.

In demo accounts we will close all open positions in $NEE on Monday afternoon. Pending orders will be cancelled.

$NEE stocks will be available for trading from Tuesday, October 27th, at the post-split price.

As always, at info@darwinex.com we’ll be happy to assist you!

End of Daylight Saving Time in Europe (October 25th 2020)

Please note that Daylight Saving Time (DST) ends in Europe on Sunday October 25th 2020 but our MT4 nd MT5 servers’ time is not changing until Sunday November 1st 2020 when DST ends in the US.

Please note that Daylight Saving Time (DST) ends in Europe on Sunday October 25th 2020 but our MT4 nd MT5 servers’ time is not changing until Sunday November 1st 2020 when DST ends in the US.

This means that there will be 1 week (October 25th through November 1st) where, for European users, most markets will open 1 hour earlier than during European DST, e.g. FX market will open at 21:04:01 GMT.

Instrument Trading Hours (GMT)
FX 21:05 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 20:59:50 – 21:04:01 daily) 
DARWINS 21:05 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 20:59 – 21:05 daily)
COMM.  
XAUUSD 22:01 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 20:59 – 22:01 daily)
XAGUSD 22:00:01 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 20:59:50 – 22:00:01 daily)
XTIUSD 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00:01 – 22:00 daily)
XNGUSD 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00:01 – 22:00 daily)
INDICES  
AUS200 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
STOXX50 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
FCHI40 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
GDAXI 01:30 – 21:00 (Mon – Fri)
SPA35 07:00 – 19:00 (Mon – Fri)
J225 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
UK100 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
SPX500 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
NDX 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
WS30 22:00 Sun – 20:55 Fri (except 21:00 – 22:00 daily)
US STOCKS 13:31 -19:59 (Mon – Fri)

As always, at info@darwinex.com we’ll be glad to assist you with any question you may have!

apalancamiento esma

Margin increase for EURGBP and EURJPY this Friday (Professional Clients)

14 October 2020

Our margin requirement for the EURGBP and EURJPY pairs for Professional Clients is changing this Friday, October 16th 2020, around 17:00 BST.

Our margin requirement for the EURGBP and EURJPY pairs for Professional Clients is changing this Friday, October 16th 2020, around 17:00 BST.

The measure is due to the recent increase in market volatility.

The new margin requirement will be 1% for both EURGBP and EURJPY, replacing the previous 0.5%.

It will remain in place until further notice and will affect both existing and new positions.

Kindly make sure you have enough available margin and equity in your account for the new margin level.

Need help? Please don’t hesitate to contact us at info@darwinex.com.

apalancamiento esma

Discontinuation of cryptocurrencies from 2021

15 September 2020

From 2021 Darwinex will no longer offer cryptocurrencies. As a first step, on Monday 21 September we will deactivate the creation of new accounts.

From 2021 Darwinex will no longer offer cryptocurrencies. Their low demand from our customer base does not justify the regulatory risk involved.

As a first step towards the discontinuation of cryptocurrencies, on Monday 21 September we will deactivate the creation of new accounts.

The cryptocurrency accounts already opened will be able to continue operating until the end of the year.

Amended Trading Hours U.S. Labor Day 2020

27 August 2020

Please note the amended Darwinex trading hours for the upcoming U.S. Labor Day on September 7th, 2020. All times are UTC.

Please note the amended Darwinex trading hours for the upcoming U.S. Labor Day on September 7th, 2020. All times are UTC.

Labor Day 2020

For your convenience:

– Normal DARWIN trading hours

– Normal FX/CFD trading hours

– Annual Calendar of Amended Darwinex Trading Hours

Apple And Tesla Stock Splits

25 August 2020

Tesla’s and Apple’s stock splits are approaching. As of August 31st, Tesla shares will be split 5-for-1, and Apple’s 4-for-1. Existing shares of each company will be multiplied by 5 and 4, respectively, and their share prices divided by those same values. At Darwinex we will apply the stock split on the weekend of August […]

Tesla’s and Apple’s stock splits are approaching. As of August 31st, Tesla shares will be split 5-for-1, and Apple’s 4-for-1. Existing shares of each company will be multiplied by 5 and 4, respectively, and their share prices divided by those same values.

At Darwinex we will apply the stock split on the weekend of August 29th.

In live accounts we will adjust open positions in $AAPL and $TSLA to the split without the need to close and reopen trades. Pending orders will be cancelled.

In demo accounts, however, we will close all open positions in $AAPL and $TSLA on Friday afternoon. Pending orders will be cancelled.

Both $AAPL and $TSLA will be available for trading from Monday, August 31st, at post-split prices.

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. -- % of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.